Evolution News

Human values means to treat the joys and sorrows, hopes and aspirations of human being sympathetically, and see them merged in Cosmic Consciousness [1].

People  should always attach the highest importance to human values [2] and accord human value to everyone without exception [3].  Cardinal human values must take precedence over all other rights [4] and the sense of human value must be reflected in every action, great or small [5]. To sadvipras, the value of human life surpasses all other values [6].

When Prabhat Sarkar started Ananda Marga, he wanted all humanity to stand upon the strict code of cardinal principles, human values, and spirituality [8].

Sin, crime [2], social value [6] vice and virtue and the penal code [7] should be formulated on the basis of cardinal human values. The definition of crime often varies from land to land, but the cardinal human values are the same, not only for this planet but everywhere in the universe [9]. If the practice of any rights conflicts with cardinal human values then that practice should be immediately curtailed [4]. Regarding social value, those who show respect to human value will be entitled to social value [6].

The cardinal human values are the silver lining between the psycho-spiritual world and the spiritual world. They are at the meeting-point of these two strata – the spiritual stratum on one side and the psycho-spiritual stratum on the other [2, 10].

In order to remove the imaginary line of demarcation between the educated and the uneducated – to eradicate this irrational distinction – the value of human beings must be recognized [5].

Vested interests intentionally try to perpetuate ignorance among the exploited masses because this provides them with a good excuse to deny the value of human beings [5].

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References

1.It was mentioned earlier that human value means nothing but to treat the joys and sorrows, hopes and aspirations of human beings sympathetically, and see them merged in Cosmic Consciousness and established in divine majesty. And if one is to elevate oneself to that sublime height, he or she will have to be supplied with an environment suitable to his or her physical, mental and spiritual existence. It is the birthright of everyone to make headway in their trifarious existence. It is the duty of society to accord recognition to this human right. Society has failed to do its duty, and that is why life is full of sorrow and suffering.” – Sarkar, Prabhat, March 1970, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 7, Social Values and Human Cardinal Principles, Human Cardinal Principles

2. “The Three Causes of Sin
30 May 1970, Muzaffarpur
Human beings are social beings, hence, they have to follow certain social codes. But they must follow some spiritual codes as well. Because of illusion or some other reasons, if people break these codes, these “dos” and “don’ts”, sometimes we call it “sin” or Pápa and at other times, “crime” or Aparádha. If the violation is in the spiritual code, rather the religious code, it is termed as “sin”. If the violation is against the legal code it is known as “crime”. Sin is sometimes based entirely on dogmas and not on cardinal human values. Wise people will never entertain a conception of sin based on religious dogma. Rather, they will judge with discrimination the correctness of the code according to cardinal human values. The concept of sin has been given by people on the basis of religion, religious dogmas and cardinal human values. As intellectuals and developed people of the second half of the 20th century, we should keep away from religious dogma and attach the highest importance to cardinal human values.

Long ago Vyása said the following about sin:

Aśtádashapuráneśu Vyásasya vacanádvayam
Paropakárah puńyáya pápáya parapiid́anam.

That is, that action which checks the progress of the society is sin, and that action which accelerates social progress is Punya or virtue. This is a fact. But what is crime? Any action which goes against the different legal codes made by the different nations, according to their spatial, personal and collective differences, is crime. In Saḿskrta crime is known as Aparádha. Sin or Pápa should be formulated on the basis of cardinal human values. This was also supported by Vyasa.

Criminal codes are generally framed by politicians according to their own standards. Sometimes they include a tinge of humanity and sometimes they do not. Thus the present-day legal codes are not necessarily humanitarian. Rational people may defy a legal code but they should never violate cardinal human values. I would never tell the people of a country to follow their legal codes blindly, but would tell them to always follow cardinal human values. The cardinal human values are the silver lining between the psycho-spiritual world and the spiritual world. They are at the meeting-point of these two strata – the spiritual stratum on one side and the psycho-spiritual stratum on the other.

In Saḿskrta there are two words for sin – that which should be done but is not done is called “Pratyaváya”, and that which should not be done but is done is “Pápa”. The combined name of Pápa and Pratyaváya is “Pátaka”. Here I will make use of the word Pápa because it is more popular.

Wherever we mention cardinal human values, we are not referring to any religious code, for that is based on religious dogmas. Again I repeat, why should the people of the second half of the 20th century follow religious dogmas? I advise you not to follow them but to revolt.

As far as possible the gap between cardinal human values and crime should be lessened. The smaller the gap the better it is. Cardinal human values are mostly unchangeable. They may change after a long time as they remain associated with the physical world, but it is natural that they will not have frequent changes because of their subjective approach. Crime will undergo trans formation according to changes in time, space and the collective body. Hence, both the conceptions cannot be exactly the same – difference between them will remain. But efforts should be made to lessen the differences. This task will be the duty of Sadvipras or spiritual revolutionaries.“  – Sarkar, Prabhat, 30 May 1970, Muzaffarpur, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 8, The Three Causes of Sin

3. “The significance of society lies in moving together. If in the course of the journey anybody lags behind, if in the darkness of night a gust of wind blows out anyone’s lamp, we should not just go ahead and leave them in the lurch. We should extend a hand to help them up, and rekindle their lamps with the flames of our lamps.

Vartiká laiyá háte calechila ek sáthe
Pathe nibe geche álo pare áche tái
Tomrá ki dayá kare tulibená háth dhare
Ardhadańd́a tár tare thámibená bhái.

[While marching together with lamps in our hands, someone’s lamp has gone out, and he is lying beside the road. Brothers and sisters, will you not stop for a moment to lift him up?]

Stop we must, otherwise the spirit of society is in jeopardy.

A rśi [sage] has said: Samamantreńa jáyate iti samájah [“Society is the collective movement of a group of individuals who have decided to move together towards a common goal”]. That is, whether people are pápii or tápii [sinners or victims], thieves, criminals, or characterless individuals, they are so only superficially; internally they are filled with the potential for purity. The principal object of the sadvipras is to explore and bring this potentiality into play. They will accord human value to everyone without exception. Those who have done hateful crimes must be punished, but sadvipras will never hate them, or put an end to them by depriving them of food, because sadvipras are humanists. The pandits puffed up with vainglory could turn their attention to their books instead of attending on the ailing non-Hindu Haridas, but Chaitanya Mahaprabhu found it impossible to remain indifferent to him. He took Haridas in his arms and nursed him carefully, and thus showed respect to human value.

However, when the question of social responsibility arises, it must be considered with great care. Irresponsible people cannot be entrusted with social responsibility, because those who shoulder social responsibility will have to lead humanity on the path of development, and correct the ways of sinners. If they themselves are of evil mentality, it will not be possible for them to discharge their social responsibility. It has been said: “The collective body of those who are engaged in the concerted effort to bridge the gap between the first expression of morality and establishment in universal humanism is called society.”(1) So social responsibility should be entrusted to those who are capable of discharging it creditably. If moralism is the starting-point of the journey of society, then those who are at its helm must be moralists. And since society aims to establish universalism, those people must be universalists. And if the gap between moralism and universal humanism is to be bridged, spiritual sádhaná is a must, so those people must practise rigorous sádhaná. Their philosophy of life must be, “Morality is the base, sádhaná is the means, and life divine is the goal.”

This great responsibility must never be entrusted to those who are themselves criminals. Unless and until such people correct themselves, they will not be given any social value, though in no way will they be denied human value. At present social value is given importance, but those who are selected to discharge social responsibility do not possess the aforesaid qualities. They have occupied their posts on the strength of their money or on the basis of patronage, but this has not resulted in any collective welfare. That is why there is an instruction in our social scripture:

Do not be misled by anyone’s tall talk. Judge merit by seeing the performance. Remember, whatever position one is in offers sufficient opportunity to work. One whose character is not in accordance with Yama-Niyama should not get opportunity [[to become]] a representative.… to [[vest]] an incompetent person with power means to push society towards destruction knowingly and deliberately. (“Society” in Caryacarya Part 2, 1999)

The sadvipras will install qualified persons in power, and the social order which will be evolved by virtue of their leadership will give due importance to one and all. In this new society based on Neohumanism, everyone will find their life worth living. All will regain their lost positions of honour.” – Sarkar, Prabhat, March 1970, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 7, Social Values and Human Cardinal Principles, Human Cardinal Principles

4. “Charter of Rights

The formation of a World Government will require a world constitution. A charter of principles or bill of rights should be included in such a constitution and encompass at least the following four areas. First, complete security should be guaranteed to all the plants and animals on the planet. Secondly, each country must guarantee purchasing power to all its citizens. Thirdly, the constitution should guarantee four fundamental rights – spiritual practice or Dharma; cultural legacy; education; and indigenous linguistic expression. Fourthly, if the practice of any of these rights conflicts with cardinal human values then that practice should be immediately curtailed. That is, cardinal human values must take precedence over all other rights. All the constitutions of the world suffer from numerous defects. The above points may be adopted by the framers of different constitutions to overcome these defects.“  – Sarkar, Prabhat, 22 September 1986, Calcutta, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 12, Requirements of an Ideal Constitution

5. “In order to remove the imaginary line of demarcation between the educated and the uneducated – to eradicate this irrational distinction – the value of human beings must be recognized. Mundane knowledge and spiritual knowledge must be as free as light and air; and like the unhindered flow of a fountain, they must keep society in a dynamic state and be a continuous source of inspiration to one and all.

As regards learning versus ignorance, vested interests intentionally try to perpetuate ignorance among the exploited masses because this provides them with a good excuse to deny the value of human beings. In the economic field, such a hypocritical stand is even more conspicuous and much more despicable. When university graduates make use of their degrees to earn their livelihood, they tend to forget that physically-strong but illiterate people are making a similar use of such assets as they have, that is, their capacity for manual labour. These educated people deprive so-called illiterates of their rights, human dignity and self-respect, and thereby develop a sense of superiority.“…

…”The sense of human value must be reflected in every action, great or small. And one of the motives, if not the only motive, behind such actions must be the acceptance of humanism in the socio-economic sphere.

Any society which accepts inequality, which wants to perpetuate that inequality by spreading false logic, is not a society worthy of the name. The standard-bearers of such false logic masquerade in the garb of righteousness and try to convince the downtrodden members of society that their economic deprivations – their humiliations, their scarcity of food, clothing and medicine, their exposure to the extremes of heat and cold – are decreed by fate, as inevitable reactions to their past actions.

Some time ago I heard a millionaire speak at a meeting. He was arguing that in modern society the karmaváda [doctrine of action and reaction of the Giitá] should be more widely propagated, because he thought that if people could understand this doctrine of action properly, the countless shrivelled-up human beings languishing in the dustbins of society would no longer blame the capitalists for their miserable condition. They would accept their misfortune with equanimity. Just imagine what a dangerous idea this is! What a wonderful capitalistic argument! Perhaps some academic stooge on the payroll of these self-seeking capitalists may even try to concoct a philosophy to support this proposition. God save humanity from such perverted philosophies!“…

…”People do not like to lose their innate human qualities or spiritual potential, to be reduced to an animal-like existence, only eating and procreating; they cannot live like that.

Yet in order to make people “magnanimous” and “virtuous” through the application of brute force, individual liberty has to be ruthlessly crushed. Total power has to be concentrated in the hands of a particular group or party, and under these circumstances there is no alternative but to deny one’s special value as a human being. To recognize people’s value would only invite trouble, because then people would have to be granted freedom to express their opinions, or at least the right to demonstrate that their opinions are beneficial for society. And if this is accepted, it will have to be indirectly accepted that it is unjust to suppress human beings through brute force. If this is conceded, then the so-called communism which took so much effort to establish would be jeopardized as a result. Within a short time the group or party in whose hands the power was concentrated would be ousted by the collective psychic and spiritual efforts of the masses who had newly attained freedom.” – Sarkar, Prabhat, 1959, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 1, Social Justice

6. “To sadvipras [spiritual revolutionaries] the value of human life surpasses all other values. So states and scriptures, societies and religions, acquire significance only insofar as they develop humanity to the maximum through learning, culture, physical health and economic plenty. It is for the sake of developing humanity that civilization has so many institutions of different kinds, that states take their various forms, that theories proliferate, and that the scriptures abound in ordinances and regulations. What in the world does the state stand for, what is the use of all these regulations, and what are the marvels of civilization for, if people are prevented from manifesting themselves, if they do not get the opportunity to build good physiques, to invigorate their intelligence with knowledge, or to broaden their hearts with love and compassion? If, instead of tending to lead human beings to the goal of life, the state stands in the way, it cannot command loyalty, because humanity is superior to the state. According to Rabindranath Tagore, “Justice and law at the cost of humanity is like a stone instead of bread. Maybe that stone is rare and valuable, but it cannot remove hunger.”

It is customary to give preference to social value over human value. Sadvipras want to strike at the root of this custom. For them, human value takes precedence over social value. Human beings form the society, and hence human value must lay the foundation for the social value. In other words, those who show respect to human value will be entitled to social value.” – Sarkar, Prabhat, March 1970, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 7, Social Values and Human Cardinal Principles, Human Cardinal Principles

7. “Vice and virtue should be defined in the interest of human values not on the whims of certain individuals. People must move towards that stage which is the zenith point of human progress and from which no further advancement is possible. That which blocks this movement is vice and that which facilitates it is virtue. To exploit an individual, a group or the entire society for one’s own interest or the interest of the group is vice. To rob a person of the right to exist is also vice. There should be scope to punish such acts; but punishment is not an end in itself. If punishment kills or prevents one from progressing along life’s path, it may also be treated as vice. Punishment should be for rectification. The penal code will be based on human values. Ananda Marga’s social treatise states: First use sweet words and inform the offender of their mistake. Then use harsher words to convince them of the social damage caused by their actions. In the third stage, inform them about the possibility of penal measures. And in the fourth stage, if the situation warrants such action, take penal measures against him, but remember, punishment should be inflicted humanely.” – Sarkar, Prabhat, March 1970, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 7, Social Values and Human Cardinal Principles, Human Cardinal Principles

8. ”Now when I started Ananda Marga, I wanted all humanity to stand upon the strict code of cardinal principles, human values, and spirituality; and when I saw everything internally I came to the decision that there are so many loopholes in human society. Human beings came here about ten lakhs of years ago, but they have not yet been able to form a well-knit social order. We require a strong social order..” – Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, 30 May 1979 Evening, Valencia, ElEdit 7, Ánanda Vacanámrtam Part 12, Lord Buddha’s Cardinal Principles

9.  “The definition of crime varies from land to land, but the cardinal human values are the same, not only for this planet but everywhere in the universe.” – Sarkar, Prabhat, 31 May 1979 evening, Valencia, ElEdit 7, Ánanda Vacanámrtam Part 30, Human Expressions and Human Movements, Human Expressions

10. Social Values and Human Cardinal Principles
March 1970
Having progressively crossed the different evolutionary stages since the distant past human beings have at last reached the present stage. The journey has not been solitary: People have advanced together in society. Even in the primitive past, humans lived in clans and tribes, for alone they could not easily procure the means of livelihood. An individual who totally shuns collective life finds existence difficult, for humans are essentially social beings. Whenever one thinks of a human being one automatically thinks of the society in which he or she lives. Human existence is thus two-sided – individual existence and collective existence – and as such it has two sets of values: social values and human cardinal principles.

The social values of human beings are ascertained on the basis of social responsibilities. As a member of society a person has to discharge certain duties and responsibilities. Those who shoulder great responsibility are naturally accorded due recognition and respect, because the good of all depends upon the proper execution of one’s duties.

An analysis of history will show that in the Kśatriya era kings and emperors were honoured most. In their courts everyone bowed before them in spontaneous respect for they had conquered the hearts of the people by virtue of their heroism, valour and chivalry. During the Vipra era the Kśatriyas and other social classes were so overwhelmed by the Vipra’s intellectual might – which they had used to invent various things to further human welfare – that they surrendered before them. The Vipras were regarded as wise because their intellectual research benefited the common people. Out of awe and respect everyone prostrated at the lotus feet of these great people.

The truth is that human beings have always and everywhere paid tribute to social values, but never, not even for a moment, has anyone respected human cardinal principles.

Human Cardinal Principles

Human cardinal principles are the silver lining between the psycho-spiritual and spiritual strata of human existence. The meeting point of the spiritual and psycho-spiritual strata is called the human cardinal stratum. Human existence is trifarious, a combination of three currents: physical, mental and spiritual. Most people cannot transcend the limits of their physical existence: crude worldly pleasures become the only enjoyment of their lives. They embody all that is beastly in nature, goaded and tormented as they are by carnal desires. The subtle feelings of life, the subtle expressions and practices are beyond their reach. Their world is limited to their bodies and physical requirements.

Other people are more concerned with their minds. They feel that it is the supremacy of the mind that has differentiated them from animals. Their lives are guided by their desires for mental satisfaction. By virtue of their endeavours they create poetry, art, music, sculpture, etc. They express the finer human feelings of mercy, sympathy, love, friendship and pity. They believe that the mind flows for the sole purpose of attaining the Infinite, and hence they focus their energies on the contemplation of the Transcendental Entity. They are the spiritual aspirants, they alone are worthy of being called human beings. Drawn by the magnetic attraction of the Cosmic Consciousness they speed forward and reach the stage which marks the end of mental existence and the beginning of spirituality. At that stage one is no longer a human being, one is a veritable god. It is the duty of every person to reach this confluence of the mental and spiritual strata. It is the pinnacle of human progress. The point where humanity ceases to exist as it merges in divine beatitude. The culminating point of animality is the commencement of humanity. The highest peak of human progress is the beginning of divine bliss. Where animality ends, humanity begins, where humanity ends, divinity begins. The meeting point of the highest attainment of humanity and the blossoming of divinity is the base on which the cardinal human principles are established.

A glimpse through human history reveals that nowhere have human values been truly honoured. What is worse, nobody has looked upon humanity with sympathy. Only those were respected who, by serving their self-interests, climbed onto the higher rostrum of society. It is difficult to step down from the high position of vainglory to rub shoulders with the downtrodden. The neglect of humanity was particularly acute towards the end of each era of the social cycle. The progeny of the noble Kśatriyas, on gaining power, engaged themselves in the pursuit of pleasure and comforts, utterly neglecting their sacred duty to serve their subjects. They never cared to know people’s suffering. They were not concerned by the bent old man, decimated by poverty in the Himalayas, being mercilessly beaten by a royal servant for defaulting on his tax payment. Kind-hearted and philanthropic kings did exist, but was there any king who, besides meeting the psycho-physical needs of his people, opened the gateway to realization of the Infinite? For self-aggrandisement and in a bid to conquer the world they invaded countries, one after another. How could they afford to inquire into the tragic plight of the common people?

The Vipra era illustrated the same thing: the scholarly Vipras were hardly accessible to the common people. The innocent masses were busy appeasing the Vipras with oblations, honorariums and floral offerings. Where was the time for them to take of the needy families of the poor neighbourhoods who were perhaps dying of starvation? And what would be the material benefit of such an action? Service to the poor would pay nothing, so let them go to hell, let them die en masse. So nobody had anything to do with the poor. And anyway, the Vipras were busy with worship, prayer and observance of sacraments. All their energies were spent in the appeasement of the gods and goddesses enthroned in the temples, churches or mosques. There was simply no opportunity to inculcate more humane qualities. According to Vipran scriptures, a temple made of bricks and wood was of more value than humanity itself. Suppose an old beggar, numbed with the cold chill of the night, is standing wearily in front of a temple, his begging bowl empty. The temple is reverberating with ringing bells, and the deity is being worshipped in accordance with the scriptural dictates. While the devotees stand before the deity with hands folded in reverence, the beggar shivers bitterly outside. On completing the ritual, the people leave the temple one by one, followed by the priest. The beggar entreats him to let him sleep in one corner of the temple, but the priest replies emphatically, “I can’t afford to pollute the temple for your sake.” And the old man has to trudge into the world of uncertainty, and perhaps bury himself in the coffin of the cold. The sanctity of inert wood and bricks is valued more than a man’s life.

Notions of vice and virtue, codes of justice and scriptural texts – which are claimed to be the word of God – have been formulated by different religions to further vested interests. Those who oppose the scriptures or the system they propound are subject to severe punishment. To socialize with a person of a different caste is a great sin and those who commit such sacrilegious acts will be excommunicated. They have to make atonement according to scriptural decree, and sometimes the magnitude of their penance may be the cause of their death. If they plea for a milder dose of punishment, the priests express their helplessness: one cannot defy the scriptures!

Those who are ensnared by the scriptures cannot be expected to know the value of human life. It takes millions of years, lives and stages to get a human body. But nobody knows how many invaluable lives have been nipped in the bud, or how many innocent lives have been slaughtered at the altar of the scriptures.

Vice and virtue are the outcome of mental perversion under the influence of time, space and person. The mental perversion which is vice in one country or in one age passes for virtue in another country or another age. Thus it is unwise to attach absolute importance to the notion of vice and virtue nurtured by some individuals at a given time. Vice and virtue have their origins either in religious faith or social prejudices, as a of natural or other causes, and they undergo changes in time, space and person. In ancient India grief-stricken wives, mourning the death of their husbands, were dragged pitilessly onto the funeral pyre and burnt to death. Those who did this remained unaffected because according to the their scriptures it was a virtuous act. Today, however it is treated as a vice.

These fabricated religious injunctions have been a repeated cause of exploitation. Placing blind faith in the scriptures people used to derive pleasure from cruel human sacrifice. The scriptures also proclaimed that to live the life of a virgin was a vice. Hence, it was not uncommon for a nine year old girl to be forced to marry an old man waiting at the jaws of death. After the death of her old spouse, hymns were chanted to make the young bride believe that she was destined to return to her husband after her own death and had no right to turn a new leaf in this life by marrying again. What a tragic existence for a sentimental woman to have to live a life of austerity to ensure unison with a husband in the life hereafter.

Polygamy, on the other hand, was not forbidden for men. A woman who was married to a man having a number of wives suffered a life of misery due to her co-wives. The folk lores or doggerels bear an excellent testimony to this: “Peace will come with my co-wife’s death. Oh what joy! I shall kill my co-wife and adorn my arm with bangles.” Even today within the same social group the cutting remarks of the mother-in-law and the husband’s sisters rob the wife of her zest for life. The story goes that a wife had her rice rationed to one earthen cup full by her mother-in-law. One day, as luck would have it, that measuring cup broke into countless pieces. Oh, what joy the wife felt. But the mother-in-law cruelly remarked, “The small earthen cup has broken, but the big one is left for us. Your joy is in vain, daughter-in-law, for my hand will now be your measure.” Can there be any greater cruelty than this? Even when supplying the minimum requirements meanness was perpetrated with such cruelty.

The inhuman rules and regulations and tortures inside the house filled a woman’s life with bitterness. Nobody knows how many have wept away sleepless nights having suffered tortures for which no redress was possible. The dogma of the scriptures crushed their emotional feelings, their hopes and aspirations like a steam roller flattening soft clay. Nobody has paid any heed to their sobs and tearful outbursts. The irrational social dictates based on vice and virtue have been a perennial source of injustice for human beings. Humanity has always been hated and trampled.

I repeat that no scripture should gain supremacy by slighting or neglecting humanity. Scriptures should be written to further human progress. They should provide rules, but these rules should in no way send humanity to its grave. Their utility lies in promoting freedom from bondage and leading humanity along the path of union with Cosmic Consciousness, the source of everything. Scriptures that throttle society to death or arrest its natural movement, should never be accepted.

Vice and virtue should be defined in the interest of human values not on the whims of certain individuals. People must move towards that stage which is the zenith point of human progress and from which no further advancement is possible. That which blocks this movement is vice and that which facilitates it is virtue. To exploit an individual, a group or the entire society for one’s own interest or the interest of the group is vice. To rob a person of the right to exist is also vice. There should be scope to punish such acts; but punishment is not an end in itself. If punishment kills or prevents one from progressing along life’s path, it may also be treated as vice. Punishment should be for rectification. The penal code will be based on human values. Ananda Marga’s social treatise states: First use sweet words and inform the offender of their mistake. Then use harsher words to convince them of the social damage caused by their actions. In the third stage, inform them about the possibility of penal measures. And in the fourth stage, if the situation warrants such action, take penal measures against him, but remember, punishment should be inflicted humanely.

Those who commit acts of vice, for whatever reasons should be given scope for rectification. If they fail to realize what they have done, they should be convinced by logical argumentation. If they ignore such reasoning they will be liable for punishment. Only the offenders themselves will be punished – under no circumstances will their relatives be punished too. Penal measures will be withdrawn as soon as the offenders have corrected themselves. An entire life should not have to be wasted over a single act of vice. On no account should anybody be branded forever.

Those who worship a marble deity in the dark corner of a temple and neglect the poor multitudes – who are themselves an embodiment of God – gain nothing in this life nor for the life hereafter. The neglect of a person who is the embodiment of God is tantamount to neglecting God Himself. A truly righteous person realizes that God does not confine Himself to the temple, but manifests Himself in His creation.

“Why are you lying in the gloom of the temple?
Raise your eyes. Look! God is not confined to four walls.
He has gone where the farmers are tilling and toiling all year round”.

–Rabindranath Tagore

In the Vipra era, humanity was affronted by the creation of divisions between high and low. People of high-birth would lose their caste if they merely stepped on the shadow of the so-called low-castes. Even worse, if a Vedic Brahman touched a person from a low family he was declared an outcaste. In no other age has humanity suffered such hatred and insult. Rabindranath says, “By standing aloof from your fellow man daily, you have hated the God enthroned in his heart.”

Instead of hating anyone, the Sadvipras will encourage everyone to build good careers. This will be Sadvipra’s principle duty. None should feel that they have been doomed for good.

The Present Age and Human Values

At present life is valued on the basis of money.

Yasyástivittam sah sarah kuliinah sah panditah
Sah shutaban gunagnah sa eva vaktása ca darshaniiyah
Sarve gunah kancanámá trayanti.

That is, these days, a person who possesses wealth is respected and revered whereas a person without money is a person honoured by none. The poor, whoever they may be, have to woo the rich just for the sake of earning their livelihood. Human values have become meaningless, for human beings have become the means for the rich to earn money. The rich, having purchased the human mind with their money, are busy playing a game of chess with the other members of society. Bereft of everything, people toil round the clock to earn a mere pittance. Today the motto of people is, “I have to send some food particles into the apathetic stomach after somehow taking a dip in the muddy water amidst hyacinths.”

Those who are at the helm of society, constantly suspicious of others, forever count their losses and profits. They have no desire to think about the plight of humanity. Rather, to gratify themselves they are ready to chew the human bone, and suck human blood. For the self-centred there is no place for feelings of mercy, sympathy or camaraderie. The railway stations and market places are full of half-clad beggars and lepers desperately stretching out their begging bowls, earning their livelihood in the only way they know. They are fortunate if anyone contemptuously flings them a copper coin. The old blind beggars sitting all day long on the steps of a bridge automatically lift their bowls whenever anyone walks past. But their hungry pleas fall on deaf ears. On the other side of the social coin, sumptuous dishes are being prepared to entertain the rich dignitaries. These contrasts ridicule the present human society.

Today, those who occupy high posts are also respected. Dignity is attached to post or rank. A station master will take great pains to prepare the railway minister’s visit, but will never trouble himself with the inconveniences faced by the ordinary passengers. Luxurious houses are built for high-ranking officers while the poor live in shanty towns, barely protected from the elements. I don’t say that large houses should never be built, but that everyone should be provided the minimum requirements. “I admit that both rice and tasty dishes are necessary for people, but I shall not demand a sumptuous dish from the goddess of food until I see that India has been overflooded with an abundance of rice.”

These days educated people are so proud of their erudition that they detest illiterate people and avoid the company of commoners. Thus they shun village life and live in towns. When the question of returning to the village crops up, they say, “What on earth would we do in a village? There’s not a single person to talk to. Only idiots live there.” This explains why almost all attention is focused on the urban areas to the detriment of the villages. While soliciting votes, political leaders pay a short visit to the villages with a mouthful of attractive promises. They promptly inform the ignorant populace about their great achievements in constructing huge dams; though perhaps village cultivation is becoming impossible due to want of irrigation. They give detailed descriptions about their plans to build bridges and bungalows and install television sets, though perhaps in that village people die for want of medicine, or beg for food in poverty-stricken desperation. And yet the common villagers constitute the backbone of society. Even in the towns not everyone gets equal opportunities. The pavements have become the home for so many people. Rabindranath says, “ There are always a number of uncelebrated people in the human civilization. They are the majority, and they are the medium, but they have no time to become human beings. They are raised on the leftovers of the national wealth. They are poorly dressed and receive little education, yet they serve the rest of society. They give maximum labour but are rewarded with ignominy – they die of starvation or are tortured to death by those they serve. They are deprived of all life’s amenities. They are the candlestick of civilization: they stand erect with the candle resting on their head. Everyone gets light from it, while they suffer the discomfort of the wax trickling down their sides. In this way, the dishonest of humanity or the neglect of human values has become a social malady.”

Another glaring example of the neglect of human values is the present judicial system. When arrested, people have to stand in the dock for the accused and face a trial based on evidence and the lawyer’s eloquence, no matter if they are guilty or not. A criminal who can afford to hire a reputable lawyer may emerge from the legal processes unscathed, whereas an innocent person of meagre financial means who is unable to appoint a good counsel, may end up in prison. If a thief is set free it is a crime, no doubt; but if an innocent person is punished it is a severe dishonour to humanity.

One of the primary causes of crime today is the lack of virtuous people. Those who are honest try to follow moral principles in their private lives, but at times have to abandon moralism under the pressure of poverty. Eventually they may find themselves in the dock of the accused, charged with committing theft. The law is not concerned with the poverty which forced them to steal, nor, indeed, does the law make provisions for the maintenance of their families if they are given a prison sentence. As a consequence, their children will have to become pick-pockets and petty thieves and their unfortunate wives have to embrace an ignoble and sinful life in the underworld, for survive they must. On being released from jail, the men will meet social discrimination and alienation and, with little other choice, will be forced to select crime as their profession. In this way hundreds of families are being ruined each day. Nobody feels their agony or offers them sympathy; for today the common people are not anybody’s concern.

The black marketeers who escape punishment by virtue of money are now occupying the commanding positions in society – the more one is devious and hypocritical, the more powerful one becomes.

[This last section was also printed separately as “The Neohumanism of Sadvipras” in Neohumanism in a Nutshell Part 1. This is the Neohumanism in a Nutshell Part 1, 2nd edition, version.]

To sadvipras [spiritual revolutionaries] the value of human life surpasses all other values. So states and scriptures, societies and religions, acquire significance only insofar as they develop humanity to the maximum through learning, culture, physical health and economic plenty. It is for the sake of developing humanity that civilization has so many institutions of different kinds, that states take their various forms, that theories proliferate, and that the scriptures abound in ordinances and regulations. What in the world does the state stand for, what is the use of all these regulations, and what are the marvels of civilization for, if people are prevented from manifesting themselves, if they do not get the opportunity to build good physiques, to invigorate their intelligence with knowledge, or to broaden their hearts with love and compassion? If, instead of tending to lead human beings to the goal of life, the state stands in the way, it cannot command loyalty, because humanity is superior to the state. According to Rabindranath Tagore, “Justice and law at the cost of humanity is like a stone instead of bread. Maybe that stone is rare and valuable, but it cannot remove hunger.”

It is customary to give preference to social value over human value. Sadvipras want to strike at the root of this custom. For them, human value takes precedence over social value. Human beings form the society, and hence human value must lay the foundation for the social value. In other words, those who show respect to human value will be entitled to social value. It was mentioned earlier that human value means nothing but to treat the joys and sorrows, hopes and aspirations of human beings sympathetically, and see them merged in Cosmic Consciousness and established in divine majesty. And if one is to elevate oneself to that sublime height, he or she will have to be supplied with an environment suitable to his or her physical, mental and spiritual existence. It is the birthright of everyone to make headway in their trifarious existence. It is the duty of society to accord recognition to this human right. Society has failed to do its duty, and that is why life is full of sorrow and suffering.

No one can say for certain that no great person might have emerged from among those wayward urchins whom we are wont to slight and hate. Women who have turned to prostitution for the sake of their physical existence might have grown into noble personalities if their agony had been appreciated sympathetically, and if they had been rehabilitated by society. But since society has nothing to do with human value, a good number of great personalities are withering away in their embryonic stage. The sadvipras will undertake to revive this neglected section of humanity. To them no sinner is contemptible, no one is a rogue. People turn into satans or sinners when, for want of proper guidance, they are goaded by depraving propensities. The human mind goaded by depraving propensities is satan. If their propensities are sublimated, they will no longer be satans; they will be transformed into gods. Every course of action of society ought to be judged with an eye to the dictum “Human beings are divine children.”

Thus the purpose of the penal code which will be framed by the sadvipras will be to rectify, and not to punish, a person. They will knock down the prisons and build reform schools, rectification camps. Those who [are] inborn criminals, in other words, those who perpetrate crimes because of some organic defects, ought to be offered treatment so that they may humanize themselves. And regarding those who commit crimes out of poverty, their poverty must be removed.

The significance of society lies in moving together. If in the course of the journey anybody lags behind, if in the darkness of night a gust of wind blows out anyone’s lamp, we should not just go ahead and leave them in the lurch. We should extend a hand to help them up, and rekindle their lamps with the flames of our lamps.

Vartiká laiyá háte calechila ek sáthe
Pathe nibe geche álo pare áche tái
Tomrá ki dayá kare tulibená háth dhare
Ardhadańd́a tár tare thámibená bhái.

[While marching together with lamps in our hands, someone’s lamp has gone out, and he is lying beside the road. Brothers and sisters, will you not stop for a moment to lift him up?]

Stop we must, otherwise the spirit of society is in jeopardy.

A rśi [sage] has said: Samamantreńa jáyate iti samájah [“Society is the collective movement of a group of individuals who have decided to move together towards a common goal”]. That is, whether people are pápii or tápii [sinners or victims], thieves, criminals, or characterless individuals, they are so only superficially; internally they are filled with the potential for purity. The principal object of the sadvipras is to explore and bring this potentiality into play. They will accord human value to everyone without exception. Those who have done hateful crimes must be punished, but sadvipras will never hate them, or put an end to them by depriving them of food, because sadvipras are humanists. The pandits puffed up with vainglory could turn their attention to their books instead of attending on the ailing non-Hindu Haridas, but Chaitanya Mahaprabhu found it impossible to remain indifferent to him. He took Haridas in his arms and nursed him carefully, and thus showed respect to human value.

However, when the question of social responsibility arises, it must be considered with great care. Irresponsible people cannot be entrusted with social responsibility, because those who shoulder social responsibility will have to lead humanity on the path of development, and correct the ways of sinners. If they themselves are of evil mentality, it will not be possible for them to discharge their social responsibility. It has been said: “The collective body of those who are engaged in the concerted effort to bridge the gap between the first expression of morality and establishment in universal humanism is called society.”(1) So social responsibility should be entrusted to those who are capable of discharging it creditably. If moralism is the starting-point of the journey of society, then those who are at its helm must be moralists. And since society aims to establish universalism, those people must be universalists. And if the gap between moralism and universal humanism is to be bridged, spiritual sádhaná is a must, so those people must practise rigorous sádhaná. Their philosophy of life must be, “Morality is the base, sádhaná is the means, and life divine is the goal.”

This great responsibility must never be entrusted to those who are themselves criminals. Unless and until such people correct themselves, they will not be given any social value, though in no way will they be denied human value. At present social value is given importance, but those who are selected to discharge social responsibility do not possess the aforesaid qualities. They have occupied their posts on the strength of their money or on the basis of patronage, but this has not resulted in any collective welfare. That is why there is an instruction in our social scripture:

Do not be misled by anyone’s tall talk. Judge merit by seeing the performance. Remember, whatever position one is in offers sufficient opportunity to work. One whose character is not in accordance with Yama-Niyama should not get opportunity [[to become]] a representative.… to [[vest]] an incompetent person with power means to push society towards destruction knowingly and deliberately. (“Society” in Caryacarya Part 2, 1999)

The sadvipras will install qualified persons in power, and the social order which will be evolved by virtue of their leadership will give due importance to one and all. In this new society based on Neohumanism, everyone will find their life worth living. All will regain their lost positions of honour.” – Sarkar, Prabhat, March 1970, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 7, Social Values and Human Cardinal Principles, Human Cardinal Principles

Nobody can say for certain that no great man would have emerged from among the wayward boys whom we are wont to slight and hate. The woman who has embraced whoredom for the sake of her physical existence might have grown into a noble personality if her agony were appreciated sympathetically and if she were repatriated by society. But since society has nothing to do with the human values, a good number of great personalities are withering away in their embryonic stage. The sadvipras [spiritual moralists] will pick up this neglected humanity and arrange for its revival. To them no sinner is contemptible, no one is a rogue.” – Sarkar, Prabhat, 2 January 1979, Patna, ElEdit 7, The Awakening of Women, Two Wings – Section E

The value of simple morality may be less than spiritual morality, but simple morality, too, is included within human cardinal values. Therefore, Lord Krsna attached a lot of importance to simple morality also.” Sarkar, Prabhat, 19 November 1967, Ranchi, Discourses on the Mahábhárata, The Moral Standard of the Age

What do people do to meet their growing needs for agricultural lands, for industries, etc.? They bring about large-scale deforestation, but no one bothers to think about the creatures that live in those forests. So the tigers and elephants haunt the villages, kill the people and demolish their houses. Why? Out of their instinct for self-preservation. We have destroyed their natural habitat, the forests, but we never bothered to consider any alternative arrangements for their shelter. We have recklessly destroyed large areas of forests without caring to think that thereby we are destroying the balance among the human, plant and animal worlds. And we never realized – and still do not – that this wanton destruction of the animal and plant worlds will be of no benefit to human beings. Rather it will be a great loss for human society, because each and every living entity, whether plant or animal, has two types of value: one, its utility value, and the other, its existential value.

Human beings usually preserve those creatures which have an immediate utility value for them: for example, cows. Human beings protect them for their own benefit, because cows have some utility. Nowadays horses have lost their utility value, thus horses are rarely found in large numbers in the streets these days; you don’t see many horses around at all. After some time people will have to go to the zoo to catch a glimpse of a horse – they will not be found anywhere else. Since horses no longer serve human needs and their utility value is nil, human beings are not eager to preserve them.

Similarly, when people are able to prepare synthetic milk by chemical process, they will also stop breeding cattle. That day people will either kill the cows by starving them, or they will themselves eat the cows. This is the situation.

Who says that those creatures who have lost their immediate utility value have no right to exist? No one has the moral right to say this. No one can dare to say that only human beings have the right to live, and not non-humans. All are the children of Mother Earth; all are the offspring of the Supreme Consciousness. Most creatures have existential value, although they may not be valuable to human beings, or we may not be aware that their existence has some significance. This existential value is sometimes individual and sometimes collective, sometimes both. Oftentimes we cannot know the utility value, or the collective existential value, of a creature; we wrongly think that it has no existential value. This is the height of foolishness. Because human beings have not advanced very far in the field of knowledge, they are prone to this sort of error.

Even those creatures which have no utility value for human beings, or whose utility value has ceased; which have no existential value for human beings, or whose existential value has ceased; still have the right to live. Even those animals which have negative utility value, instead of positive, and negative entitative [existential] value, instead of positive – human beings will have to try to preserve even those animals by creating a congenial environment for them instead of destroying them. And they will also have to provide adequate safeguards so that those creatures may not prove injurious. If, in the absence of proper safeguards, those undeveloped creatures do harm to humans, the fault does not lie with those creatures but with the human beings. Human beings are endowed with developed intellect – why do they not make adequate arrangements to protect themselves?

One more thing must be said – that non-human creatures have the same existential value to themselves as human beings have to themselves. Perhaps human beings can understand the value of their existence, while other living beings cannot: this is the only difference. Even so, no one has conferred any authority on human beings to kill those unfortunate creatures.

Now, within the scope of socio-sentiment maximitis there are economically-developed groups [and hence also economically-undeveloped groups]. Within the greater human society, there are different social divisions in some form or other, direct or indirect. As a result, the virus of intra-human conflict, and along with this, inter-creature conflict, is bound to spread. And in this inter-creature conflict, human beings have completely forgotten the utility value and entitative value of other creatures.

Thus humanism cannot be accepted as an ideal path to perfection. Human beings will have to progress further towards perfection: Hethá nay hethá nay, anya kothá, anya konakháne(2) [“Not here, not here, somewhere else, somewhere else”]. We must move ever forward beyond the confines of sentiment. And does not a still more glorious and effulgent dawn await us there? Indeed it does.“  – Sarkar, Prabhat, 22 March 1982, Calcutta, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 8, Pseudo-Humanism (Discourse 8 )

Now, when the first humans learnt how to speak, their expressions were mostly confined within the jurisdiction of the physical body and of mental phenomena concerning the physical body. And nothing more than that. Anthropological and archaeological history also says this. There was nothing called cardinal human value. Man was no better than animals.“…

…”So it is possible for human beings to feel Parama Puruśa with their intuition and not with their intellect. Parama Puruśa is something that can be touched by your intuition and not by your intellect. In Vedic language, intuition is called “Bodhi” and intellect is called “Buddhi”. The Supreme is beyond the range of your Buddhi. It is within the range of your Bodhi.

Now when Bodhi developed after thousands of years, those human beings felt, understood, and realized that there are certain cardinal human principles. And there lie the cardinal values of human existence. After understanding that, men realized the real value of the human entity. And they also realized that the only goal of human existence is Parama Puruśa. There cannot be any second goal.

And the only human development is man’s movement toward Parama Puruśa, and in no other stratum of life can there be any development. Development means progress in the realm of spirituality and in no other realm. Human progress has nothing to do with religions; human progress has everything to do with the human beings, occult movement, that is, movement towards the Supreme.” – Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, 3 June 1979 evening, Lyon, ElEdit 7, Ánanda Vacanámrtam Part 12, The Real Value of the Human Entity

7
Whether Buddhism or Jainism is atheistic or theistic, good or bad, is not at all the topic of discussion here. Although they opposed the ritualistic religions of their day, they never transgressed morality; they always adhered to a moral code. The materialistic philosophy of Charvaka, however, in opposing the ostentatious religious practices, denied moral principles and human values.”

“In the Vedas there is a ritual portion (karmakáńd́a, composed of mantra and Bráhmań [regulations for yajiṋas]) and a philosophical portion (jiṋánakáńd́a, composed of Árańyaka and Upaniśada). Although the ritual portion may be used to increase ignorance or exploitation, the knowledge portion cannot be so easily utilized for that purpose, and should not be rejected outright. Many profound human values are embedded in these scriptures. Moreover, even if there is any philosophical controversy, one will have to establish one’s position through logic and rational argument, through váda, jalpa and vitańd́á. Rude and indecorous language is not at all tolerable.
” – Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, 6 August 1982, Patna, ElEdit 7, Namah Shiváya Shántáya, Shiva in the Light of Philosophy (continued) (Discourse 18)

There are some people who are inclined to accept this ever-changing present as absolute and supreme. Considering insensate and inert matter to be the original source of all and the most important factor of existence, they thereby block the path of human wisdom. These materialists lose their natural human values; they think, “This material enjoyment is the absolute and supreme fulfilment.” “…

…”By glorifying an irrational doctrine which has been created by personal caprice, like a red balloon of imagination flying in the sky, and then imposing that doctrine on millions of people, they destroy the universal values of human beings. By declaring inert and insensate matter – which is actually the slave of humanity – to be the supreme and absolute goal of worship, they cause the decay of all human treasure and spiritual wealth, and thus throw individuals and collectivity into an eternal whirlpool of lamentation.” – Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, 6 June 1982, Patna, ElEdit 7, Namah Shiváya Shántáya, Shiva’s Teachings – 1 (Discourse 9)

Charter of Rights

The formation of a World Government will require a world constitution. A charter of principles or bill of rights should be included in such a constitution and encompass at least the following four areas. First, complete security should be guaranteed to all the plants and animals on the planet. Secondly, each country must guarantee purchasing power to all its citizens. Thirdly, the constitution should guarantee four fundamental rights – spiritual practice or Dharma; cultural legacy; education; and indigenous linguistic expression. Fourthly, if the practice of any of these rights conflicts with cardinal human values then that practice should be immediately curtailed. That is, cardinal human values must take precedence over all other rights. All the constitutions of the world suffer from numerous defects. The above points may be adopted by the framers of different constitutions to overcome these defects.“  – Sarkar, Prabhat, 22 September 1986, Calcutta, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 12, Requirements of an Ideal Constitution

In the first phase of human creation, when humanity, rather, civilization, was just in the form of a new[-born child], humans were almost like other animals. There was little difference amongst apes, proto-apes and humans – ape-men and humans.(3) In the realm of physicality, humans were almost like other ape-men – there was no socio-economico-cultural life, and there was hardly any spiritual life.

[The age] moved on. Humanity passed through several transmutations, through several changes, and through many metamorphoses. Human ideas underwent changes as a result of the development of human cells – protoplasmic cells in the realm of physicality, and nerve-cells in the realm of intellectuality. Some people came forward who became the leaders of the society. Hero-worship started – [the worship of heroism] in human structure. And there came the first phase, the rudimental phase, in human socio-economico-cultural life. [And a great acceleration] of spirituality came; human values increased. Cardinal human values underwent a bit of assessment. Human existence came upon a new era. There was hardly any economic life, but there was a wee bit of cultural and social life.” – Sarkar, Prabhat, 26 May 1984, Ranchi, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 9, Humanity Is at the Threshold of a New Era

Nobody can say for certain that no great man would have emerged from among the wayward boys whom we are wont to slight and hate. The woman who has embraced whoredom for the sake of her physical existence might have grown into a noble personality if her agony were appreciated sympathetically and if she were repatriated by society. But since society has nothing to do with the human values, a good number of great personalities are withering away in their embryonic stage. The sadvipras [spiritual moralists] will pick up this neglected humanity and arrange for its revival. To them no sinner is contemptible, no one is a rogue.” – Sarkar, Prabhat, 2 January 1979, Patna, ElEdit 7, The Awakening of Women, Two Wings – Section E

The subtlest [tinge] of veracity remained covert behind those many scriptures. That is why it has been said that once upon a time King Yudhiśt́hira was asked several questions regarding human values; rather, cardinal human values; regarding spirituality. The basic question was, “What is the correct approach, what should be the correct approach?” So many scriptures say so many things. So many social codes say so many things. So what is an ordinary man to do? What is an ordinary spiritual aspirant to do?” – Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, 13 May 1979 morning, Fiesch, Switzerland, ElEdit 7, Ánanda Vacanámrtam Part 12, Parama Puruśa, Not Scriptures

Lord Buddha said, “Samyak Karmánta”. There are subtle instructions which have cardinal human value. Lord Buddha’s instruction to common people, one and all, was that everybody should follow eight such principles.“…

…”Now when I started Ananda Marga, I wanted all humanity to stand upon the strict code of cardinal principles, human values, and spirituality; and when I saw everything internally I came to the decision that there are so many loopholes in human society. Human beings came here about ten lakhs of years ago, but they have not yet been able to form a well-knit social order. We require a strong social order..” – Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, 30 May 1979 Evening, Valencia, ElEdit 7, Ánanda Vacanámrtam Part 12, Lord Buddha’s Cardinal Principles

Due to the suppression, repression and oppression caused by communism, people are not turned into slaves, rather the human mind is transformed into matter. This is because in communism human values do not exist, so the human mind becomes inert like matter. In this state people have no connection with the Self or soul.“  – Sarkar, Prabhat, 13 November 1989, Calcutta, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 17, Suppression, Repression and Oppression

Communism ignores the higher human and spiritual values of life. It lets the human soul stand unrecognized. The condition of human beings in today’s communist countries is no better than that of domestic cattle in dairy farms.“  – Sarkar, Prabhat, 16 February 1967, Ranchi, Prout in a Nutshell Part 6, Práńa Dharma, Communism and Indian Práńa Dharma

Recently you may have noticed that Marxists sometimes shout at the top of their voices and cry themselves hoarse to proclaim that they do not accept dharma. They have now been caught in the trap of their defective philosophy, and their leaders have been caught in the same trap. They liquidated hundreds of thousands of simple, innocent people on flimsy charges without even the pretense of a trial. Was this a humanitarian act? This bestial genocide occurred because Marxists deviated from the path of dharma.

Today such people deserve severe condemnation by humanity. It is a sin to waste public money to build huge monuments or construct roads in memory of these people. Until they capture political power in a country, these hypocrites repeat the sweet slogans of democracy like parrots merely for public consumption. But once they are in power, they unscrupulously throw democracy in the dustbin and grind subtle human sensibilities and higher human values to dust under the steamroller of a ruthless party dictatorship.“  – Sarkar, Prabhat, 10 July 1988, Calcutta, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 15, Defects of Communism – Section B

It should also be remembered that the Kśatriya Age began the process of seeing humans as humans, and the Vipra Age, in assessing the value of humans, gave more importance to intellect than to physical existence.“  – Sarkar, Prabhat, 1967, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 5, The Vipra Age, Spiritual Advancement


The shúdras had fought solely to survive, whereas the kśatriyas fought for their own survival, for the survival of others and for their prestige. The shúdras’ main aim had been to arrange food and security by any means, whereas the kśatriyas’ aim was to conquer with glory. This sentiment enabled the kśatriyas to develop a subtler intellect and awakened their conscience and discriminative judgement. It went against the kśatriyas’ conscience to kill the unarmed, to kill women, children or old people, to kill those who had surrendered, or to kill a retreating enemy. In a word, the kśatriyas’ sense of valour transcended the animal level, and they learned to understand the value of human beings.
“  – Sarkar, Prabhat, 1967, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 5, The Kśatriya Age, The Start of the Kśatriya Age

Those who hold the communist banner and attack helpless people in the name of revolution, losing sight of human values under the impetus of their confused, irrational philosophy, are goaded by the same type of psychology.“  – Sarkar, Prabhat, 11 September 1988, Calcutta, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 16, The Civil Disobedience Movement

Capitalism and communism are both ultravires to the práńa dharma of the people of the world. PROUT wants to maintain the integrity of práńa dharma of each and every race. Capitalism, by its hydra-headed greed for economic exploitation, has made human beings slaves to circumstances beyond their control. In India, capitalism has sucked the vital energy of the people by rendering them poverty stricken. Similarly, communism has gone against the very vital life surge of the people of India. Communists mouth enchanting, hollow slogans, and are trying to push the entire race down the path of animality where cardinal human values are non-existent.” – Sarkar, Prabhat, 1969, Ranchi, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 18, Talks on Education – Section B

Human beings want expansion, but this is not possible by depriving others of their wealth. It is possible only by drenching one’s human values and existential awareness in a flow of sweetness and expanding them throughout the universe – by infusing the sweetest feelings of the innermost recesses of one’s heart into the heart of each and every entity.” – Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, 18 June 1982, Patna, ElEdit 7, Namah Shiváya Shántáya, Shiva’s Teachings – 1 (continued) (Discourse 11)

The second interpretation of sádhu is:

Pránáh yathátmano’bhiiśt́ah bhútánám api te tathá;
Átmaopamyena bhutánáḿ dayáḿ kurvanti sádhavah.

“The life of every creature is as valuable to itself as one’s own life is valuable to a human being: one who remembers this and shows kindness to all, is termed sádhu.” ” – Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, 7 December 1980, Calcutta, ElEdit 7, Ananda Marga Philosophy in a Nutshell Part 8, Párthasárathi Krśńa and Vishiśt́ádvaetaváda (Discourse 16)

The revolution which terminates the capitalist era requires the united struggle of the disgruntled workers. Shúdras can never be the actual revolutionaries because they lack sufficient moral stamina, responsibility and fighting spirit. They are vulnerable to many vices and are not well-established in human values, hence they cannot develop the requisite revolutionary character. The vikśubdha shúdras develop into genuine revolutionaries because they acquire the moral courage and discipline to oppose exploitation.“  – Sarkar, Prabhat, 1969, Ranchi, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 21, Nuclear Revolution, The Social Cycle

According to the enlargement of human existential value and jurisdiction, psychic pabula will also increase. There should be maximum amenities for one and all, with more longing for physico-psychic objects of enjoyment. These amenities should be increased for the entire social order. There cannot be any full stop, any comma or any semi-colon in this progress.” – Sarkar, Prabhat, 13 October 1989, Calcutta, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 17, Minimum Requirements and Maximum Amenities, Neo-Humanistic Approach to Economics

The shúdras fought solely for self-preservation, whereas the kśatriyas fought for their survival as well as for the establishment of their supremacy. The aim of the shúdras was to gather food and ensure their own security, whereas the kśatriyas were in pursuit of conquest and dignity. This sense of prestige in the kśatriyas developed a subtler intelligence in them, awakened their conscience and stimulated their power of judgement. To slay the disarmed, to slaughter women, children or old people, to murder those who had surrendered or to kill those running away for their lives from a fight went against the grain of kśatriya conscience. In essence, the valour of the kśatriyas was instrumental in their surpassing the animal stratum as they learnt to understand human values. It was this sense of values that raised conjugal and domestic life to human standard to a great extent. Instead of conjugal relations being limited to the status of enjoyer and the enjoyed, they began to contain a sense of duty. With the establishment of conjugal relationships a sense of duty awakened in the father towards his children. Consequently, as soon as the responsibilities of mothers lessened to some extent, women became dependent on men for their food and clothes, particularly during the period of pregnancy and during the post-delivery period. As a result, married couples, though belonging to the same group, began to emerge in previously male-centred households. As families were male-centred, male-dominated groups became evident and clan mothers lost their previous authority.” – Sarkar, Prabhat, 1967, ElEdit 7, The Awakening of Women, Matriarchy in the Kśatriya Age

Finally, it should be remembered that economic democracy is essential not only for the economic liberation of human beings, but for the universal well-being of all – including plants and animals. Economic democracy will devise ways and means to effect the smooth progress of society by recognizing the unique value of both humans and non-humans alike.” – Sarkar, Prabhat, June 1986, Calcutta, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 21, Economic Democracy, Requirements for Economic Democracy

Genuine spiritual practice is the birthright of all people. In all spheres of collective life – economic, political, social, etc. – a scientific and rational outlook is essential. The inculcation of cardinal human values is an urgent necessity. This is the demand of the age. Because such higher values are lacking in social life, there are many incongruities and confusions in society.” – Sarkar, Prabhat, 1981, Calcutta, ElEdit 7, Prout in a Nutshell Part 13, Capitalism in Three Spheres, Spiritual Capitalism

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