Evolution News

REFINED EXPRESSIONS

the subtler and sweeter expressions of human life are generally termed “culture.” those activities expressing the subtler and sweeter aspects of life are called “culture” in a general sense [1]

The different expressions of life are termed culture.[4]

The collective name of different expressions of human life is culture.[16]

I may as well tell you at the very outset that culture is one for the whole human race.[16]

Culture is the collective form of all the expressions of life. Culture is the expression of the intellectual stratum whereas civilization is the expression of the physical aspects of life.[17]

The greater the tendency of refinement in people, the more cultured they are.[19]

The more cultured people become in a refined social environment, the greater their sense of duty for their children. For this reason children lose the capacity to do anything themselves.[21]

Having identical tendencies, humans and animals both belong to the same category of living beings. The difference lies in the fact that the animal in a human body can refine those tendencies and express them in a more subtle manner. This refinement is called culture.[18]

Culture is a vague term. It is the collective name for different expressions of life. People eat, enjoy hospitality, laugh on some occasions and shed tears on others, and thereby express life through various actions. The collective name of all these actions is culture. The particular expressions of life which are not considered beneficial to others are called Krs’t’i or culture. To take a very common example, an English family, out of hospitality, may offer beef to an Indian guest who may not like it. The term Sam’skrti also means culture. It is used in a good sense and is beneficial for all.[5]

Human expressions are multilateral. The ways of life are multifarious. Amidst these multifarious activities the picture of human beings that we get is their culture. The sum-total of different expressions of human life is called Samskrti or culture. The ways of expression may differ from one group of people to other: some eat with their hands, some use spoons, yet others use sticks, but everyone has to eat.[2]

The expressions of life may increase with intellectual development. There is no place for fine arts, literature and music among the so-called under-developed groups of people, so the expressions of life are less in number in their case. Where the number of expressions is more it can be said that there has been more cultural development in the material sense. Persons with more varied expressions of life may be called more cultured.”[2]

Human culture is, therefore, one and indivisible. The use of expressions such as Hindu culture, Muslim culture, Indian culture or European culture is absurd. Those who hold these partisan ideas are not well-wishers of humanity.[2]

Culture is the same for all humanity though there are differences in cultural expressions due to time, space and person.[22]

Human life is characterised by various kinds of expressions -people eat and drink, wear clothes, sing and dance, build houses, undergo medical treatment, and so on – which are collectively known as culture. Any one of these expressions is not culture; culture is the sum total of them all.[23]

With intellectual development there will be cultural progress, but restraint and rationality have to be exercised on the cultural expressions. In life today there is utter lack of these qualities. it is the bounden duty of the leaders of this world to form a strong society of human beings on the basis of a constructive ideology and to spread civilization in them. If this is done, cultural development will automatically occur.[3]

Socio-economic units will not only have to fulfil people’s social and economic needs, but also their cultural aspirations. Culture denotes all sorts of human expressions. Culture is the same for all humanity, though there are differences in cultural expression. The best means of communicating human expressions is through one’s mother tongue, as this is most natural.[6]

The sum total of human expression is culture, and language is the best medium to express human culture.[8]

What is culture? Culture is the collection of different expressions of human life.[9]

Civilization is a collection of usages, manners, etiquette, formalities, ideologies and love.[10]

ONE

Human culture is one, though there are some local variations in its expression [1]

According to PROUT all of society has the same culture[5]

DIFFERENT CULTURES

The culture of the entire human race is one, but there are different local expressions. This difference in local expressions does not mean that people of different corners of the earth have different cultures - culture is the same, but the expressions vary.[9]

The culture of the entire humanity is the same, but civilization varies from society to society.[10]

Culture is one for the entire world. Common factors for the entire humanity (that is, culture in the true sense of the term) should always be encouraged, but prima facie differences should never be encouraged. Those who encourage these differences help the fissiparous tendencies which endanger human progress. To establish a cosmopolitan cultural outlook, we have to wipe out prima facie differences through matrimony and other socio-economic blendings.[11]

There are certain prima facie local variations, but there is no difference in the subterranean cultural flow of the human society. The difference is external and not internal.[11]

The human race has only one culture. I am not prepared to accept that there are numerous cultures. But then, this much can be said: the dances, songs, pronun- ciations and festive celebrations of various groups of the human race have their local peculiarities. These local peculiarities, or differences in manners and customs, cannot be considered separate cultures. Such differences in the local manners and customs of human beings cannot be removed by the force of law or by dictatorial rule. If attempts are made to destroy local manners and customs, languages, and other social con- ventions in the name of national unity, human unity, or national sentiment, in all likelihood that will result in the escalation of mutual distrust and violence, which will lead collective life down the path of destruction.[25]

___________

Culture is an ambiguous term. It is a collective expression of social life and is of composite structure. The Sanskrit words for culture are sam’skrti and krs’t’i. Sam’skrti is used in a good sense and krs’t’i in a general sense.[11]

The culture of one community influences the culture of another community. The rule is that the culture with the greatest vitality has the strongest influence. Sometimes the weaker culture is even absorbed by the more powerful one. When different cultural groups live side-by-side there is a lot of mutual exchange. The members of the weaker cultural group accept everything inherent in the dominating group, including its language.[14]

The entire human society is of a cosmopolitan nature — nothing can be treated as being indigenous to this group or that. The world is fast moving toward cosmopolitanism, and none will be able to maintain their national characters. The big towns have already become cosmopolitan. Just as the mixture of the English, the Spanish, the French and so on gave rise to the culture of America, similarly a cosmopolitan blending is taking place. Cultural blending is going on throughout the world. No group of people or nation will be able to maintain its speciality — the political entities are trying hard to maintain these specialities, but they will not be able to. During a time of flood, ponds, streams, lakes, oceans all become one; similarly, culture will become one.”[26]

As a rule, a strong culture exerts a great influence on a weaker culture. When people with different cultural backgrounds live side by side, the language spoken by the people of the stronger culture automatically influences other groups.[7]

Once one’s cultural life is controlled, one becomes a slave.[24]

EXAMPLES

Suppose someone offers you food: you may eat without washing your hands and feet, or you may eat after washing thoroughly. The refined manner of eating in a hygienic way is called the “culture of eating”, while those activities expressing the subtler and sweeter aspects of life are called “culture” in a general sense.[1]

some eat with their hands, some use spoons, yet others use sticks, but everyone has to eat.[2]

There is no place for fine arts, literature and music among the so-called under-developed groups of people, so the expressions of life are less in number in their case. Where the number of expressions is more it can be said that there has been more cultural development in the material sense.[2]

To take a concrete example, eating is a cultural expression of life.[3]

The pitiable destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bears witness to the uncivilized action of the so-called nations. Though they are culturally advanced, they are most backward in civilization.[3]

Culture is a vague term. It is the collective name for different expressions of life. People eat, enjoy hospitality, laugh on some occasions and shed tears on others, and thereby express life through various actions. The collective name of all these actions is culture.[5]

While everybody eats, some eat by hand, others by stick and still others by spoon. Indian dance is based on Mudra’ or dance postures, and European dance is based on rhythm, but they do not represent two different cultures.[5]

To eat is equally essential for all, but people, even when extremely hungry, do not rush up to the table like dogs and sit down to eat with total disregard for their surroundings. Unless their hunger is more powerful than the faculty of reasoning, they will wash their hands before eating. This is a part of culture.[18]

he more cultured people become in a refined social environment, the greater their sense of duty for their children. For this reason children lose the capacity to do anything themselves.[21]

Human life is characterised by various kinds of expressions -people eat and drink, wear clothes, sing and dance, build houses, undergo medical treatment, and so on – which are collectively known as culture. Any one of these expressions is not culture; culture is the sum total of them all. Sadashiva wanted to systematise all those expressions of human life — dance, music, medicine, civilisation, in fact, every aspect of life. This was a big change, a revolutionary change. Nothing like it had ever taken place before.[23]

NOT EXAMPLES

The use of expressions such as Hindu culture, Muslim culture, Indian culture or European culture is absurd. Those who hold these partisan ideas are not well-wishers of humanity.[2]

The human race has only one culture. I am not prepared to accept that there are numerous cultures. But then, this much can be said: the dances, songs, pronun- ciations and festive celebrations of various groups of the human race have their local peculiarities. These local peculiarities, or differences in manners and customs, cannot be considered separate cultures.[25]


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1.Now, there is another aspect: culture. As you know, the subtler and sweeter expressions of human life are generally termed “culture.” Suppose someone offers you food: you may eat without washing your hands and feet, or you may eat after washing thoroughly. The refined manner of eating in a hygienic way is called the “culture of eating”, while those activities expressing the subtler and sweeter aspects of life are called “culture” in a general sense.

Human culture is one, though there are some local variations in its expression. ” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, 21 March 1982, Calcutta, Eledit 6, 2001, The Liberation of Intellect, Discourse 7, Exploitation and Pseudo-Culture

2.Human expressions are multilateral. The ways of life are multifarious. Amidst these multifarious activities the picture of human beings that we get is their culture. The sum-total of different expressions of human life is called Samskrti or culture. The ways of expression may differ from one group of people to other: some eat with their hands, some use spoons, yet others use sticks, but everyone has to eat. Human culture is, therefore, one and indivisible. The use of expressions such as Hindu culture, Muslim culture, Indian culture or European culture is absurd. Those who hold these partisan ideas are not well-wishers of humanity.

The expressions of life may increase with intellectual development. There is no place for fine arts, literature and music among the so-called under-developed groups of people, so the expressions of life are less in number in their case. Where the number of expressions is more it can be said that there has been more cultural development in the material sense. Persons with more varied expressions of life may be called more cultured.” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, Eledit 6, 2001, A Few Problems Solved Part 6, The Interplay Of Culture And Civilization

3.Cultural expressions and civilization are not synonymous. Where there is control and rationality in the different expressions of life, there is civilization. To take a concrete example, eating is a cultural expression of life. Those who ration ally think that over-eating is bad, think restraint from it may be called civilized. The cultural expressions in people are many. People who cannot control the different expressions may be called culturally advanced but not civilized.
Culturally advanced people may not necessarily be civilized if in their ex pression there is a lack of rationality, reasoning and control.
Similarly, a so-called culturally backward people may not necessarily be socially backward. There are many who treat the Adivasis as backward. But a dispassionate consideration will reveal that though they may be culturally backward due to less expressions of life, they have made considerable social progress and are thus more socially advanced. Similar is the case with the Africans.
From ancient times human beings have struggled against their obstacles. Struggle is the essence of life. Those who cry for disarmament are enemies of human beings. They are reluctant to fight even against criminals. Of course, with the spread of civilization human beings will not attack the unarmed and the weak. Unfortunately, there are many persons in this world who think of themselves as civilized but mercilessly crush the help less and the innocent. The pitiable destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bears witness to the uncivilized action of the so-called nations. Though they are culturally advanced, they are most backward in civilization. They should sit at the feet of the Indian Adivasis and learn about civilization. Those who possess atom and hydrogen bombs have to be taught the lesson that this universe is for human beings and not for demons. More powerful weapons have to be invented to counteract these uncivilized persons.
Today special care has to be given to society and civilization. With intellectual development there will be cultural progress, but restraint and rationality have to be exercised on the cultural expressions. In life today there is utter lack of these qualities. it is the bounden duty of the leaders of this world to form a strong society of human beings on the basis of a constructive ideology and to spread civilization in them. If this is done, cultural development will automatically occur.
” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, Eledit 6, 2001, A Few Problems Solved Part 6, The Interplay Of Culture And Civilization
4. Cultural Evolution

Cultural evolution has also brought about, and is continuing to bring about, a considerable change in society. This change is taking place more or less uniformly in almost all the countries of the world. Cultural evolution cannot be considered bad, for although defects in some societies are infecting others, yet even this interrelation has an immensely positive aspect: for the human race, knowingly or unknowingly, is gradually building a new human culture through mutual cooperation.

The different expressions of life are termed culture. The more the mutual contact and exchange of ideas between peoples of different countries, the closer people come to one another in the cultural sphere. The old, worn-out walls of literary tradition are in many places crumbling and in other places have been smashed to smithereens. As a result a new kind of international literature is evolving, and this is certainly an auspicious augury for the future. ” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, Eledit 6, 2001, A Few Problems Solved Part 1, The Practice Of Art And Literature

5. CULTURE

Culture is a vague term. It is the collective name for different expressions of life. People eat, enjoy hospitality, laugh on some occasions and shed tears on others, and thereby express life through various actions. The collective name of all these actions is culture. The particular expressions of life which are not considered beneficial to others are called Krs’t'i or culture. To take a very common example, an English family, out of hospitality, may offer beef to an Indian guest who may not like it. The term Sam’skrti also means culture. It is used in a good sense and is beneficial for all.
According to PROUT all of society has the same culture. There are local variations in the mode or state of cultural expression, but the expression is universal. While everybody eats, some eat by hand, others by stick and still others by spoon. Indian dance is based on Mudra’ or dance postures, and European dance is based on rhythm, but they do not represent two different cultures.

Local variations will diminish if there is a close blending between different groups of people, because this will create common customs. In Nepal there is a blending of Hindu and Buddhist customs. In Bengal there is a blending of Aryan and Dravidian customs. These local variations are called customs. Thus local modes of expression bearing local or group specialities are customs, but the expression itself is culture. Therefore it is a mistake to readjust boundaries on the basis of language and culture. Indian culture and the culture of the world are one and the same. Readjusting boundaries on the basis of customs is not possible for customs may differ within the same locality. ” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, July 1961, Ranchi, Eledit 6, 2001, Prout In A Nutshell Part 15, Talks On Prout

6. Cultural Expression Socio-economic units will not only have to fulfil people’s social and economic needs, but also their cultural aspirations. Culture denotes all sorts of human expressions. Culture is the same for all humanity, though there are differences in cultural expression. The best means of communicating human expressions is through one’s mother tongue, as this is most natural. If people’s natural expression through their mother tongue is suppressed, inferiority complexes will grow in their minds, encouraging a defeatist mentality and ultimately leading to psycho-economic exploitation.” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, November, 1979, Eledit 6, 2001, Proutist Economics, Developmental Planning

7. “As a rule, a strong culture exerts a great influence on a weaker culture. When people with different cultural backgrounds live side by side, the language spoken by the people of the stronger culture automatically influences other groups. For example, though there were marked differences between the Aryan and non- Aryan cultures, the Aryan language was so powerful that all the languages of eastern and northern India had to depend mainly on Sam’skrta. The influence of Sam’skrta was so widespread that even in southern India it exerted a tremendous influence on the Dravidian languages. The following statistics demonstrate the extent to which the eastern and northern Indian languages were influenced by Vedic Sam’skrta. In Bengali there are 92% Sam’skrta words, in Oriya 90%, Maethilii 85%, Tamil 3% and Malayalam 75%. Some people from North India travelled to the western part of Madras by sea and settled there, hence Malayalam is full of Sam’skrta words, although the verbs are from Tamil.” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, May 1970, Eledit 6, 2001, Prout In A Nutshell Part 21, How To Unite Human Society, Language

8.The Local Language as the Medium of Instruction

The fourth point of PROUT’s approach is that the medium of instruction from primary to tertiary level should be in the local language. The sum total of human expression is culture, and language is the best medium to express human culture. While different socio-economic groups should encourage every language, each socio-economic unit should use the local language to inspire self-confidence and self-respect amongst the local people. Encouraging a positive cultural identity is an important ingredient in the socioeconomic development of the local area, and is an essential factor in generating a sense of affinity and unity amongst the people.” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, 31 December 1984, Calcutta, Eledit 6, 2001, A Few Problems Solved Part 9, Socio-Economic Movements

9.Then comes one of the important points: cultural life. What is culture? Culture is the collection of different expressions of human life. The culture of the entire human race is one, but there are different local expressions. This difference in local expressions does not mean that people of different corners of the earth have different cultures - culture is the same, but the expressions vary. ” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, 2 January 1986, Calcutta, Eledit 6, 2001, A Few Problems Solved Part 7, Renaissance In All The Strata Of Life

10.Civilization is a collection of usages, manners, etiquette, formalities, ideologies and love. The culture of the entire humanity is the same, but civilization varies from society to society.” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, 12 January 1986, Calcutta, Eledit 6, 2001, A Few Problems Solved Part 5, River And Civilization

11.Culture is an ambiguous term. It is a collective expression of social life and is of composite structure. The Sanskrit words for culture are sam’skrti and krs’t'i. Sam’skrti is used in a good sense and krs’t'i in a general sense. There are certain prima facie local variations, but there is no difference in the subterranean cultural flow of the human society. The difference is external and not internal. Culture is one for the entire world. Common factors for the entire humanity (that is, culture in the true sense of the term) should always be encouraged, but prima facie differences should never be encouraged. Those who encourage these differences help the fissiparous tendencies which endanger human progress. To establish a cosmopolitan cultural outlook, we have to wipe out prima facie differences through matrimony and other socio-economic blendings.” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, 22 October 1959, Eledit 6, 2001, Discourses On Prout, 2

12.The universal society has only one culture. It has humanitarian value at its very fundament. Human society throughout the universe has only one human sentiment, and that sentiment makes people laugh in happiness and shed tears in sorrow. They try to help others, form society, live peacefully and die peacefully. This is what is called human culture. We should encourage this fundamental culture.” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, 22 October 1959, Eledit 6, 2001, Discourses On Prout, 6

13.These linguistic differences are due to raciocultural influences. The different cultures of the world have been responsible for the creation of different languages. Human beings formulate words with various types of sound. This sound is produced by exhaled air which flows over the vocal chord and emerges through the mouth and nose. The sound is modified with changes made in the shape of the mouth, lips and nose. Generally, these linguistic differences are due to the cumulative effect of six main factors: blood, nose, hair, skin, eyes and body height.” - Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, Eledit 6, 2001, A Few Problems Solved Part 2, Human Society Is One And Indivisible — 2

14. Languages are also influenced by culture. The culture of one community influences the culture of another community. The rule is that the culture with the greatest vitality has the strongest influence. Sometimes the weaker culture is even absorbed by the more powerful one. When different cultural groups live side-by-side there is a lot of mutual exchange. The members of the weaker cultural group accept everything inherent in the dominating group, including its language. ” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, Eledit 6, 2001, A Few Problems Solved Part 2, Human Society Is One And Indivisible — 2

15.Thus, there are differences in language due to racial traits and cultural influence.” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, Eledit 6, 2001, A Few Problems Solved Part 2, Human Society Is One And Indivisible — 2

16. “The collective name of different expressions of human life is culture. I may as well tell you at the very outset that culture is one for the whole human race.” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, Eledit 6, 2001, A Few Problems Solved Part 6, Civilization, Science And Spiritual Progress

17.Culture is the collective form of all the expressions of life. Culture is the expression of the intellectual stratum whereas civilization is the expression of the physical aspects of life. So people may be civilized by way of material development, but so far as their mental development is concerned, they may not be culturally endowed.” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, Eledit 6, 2001, A Few Problems Solved Part 6, Civilization, Science And Spiritual Progress

18.Having identical tendencies, humans and animals both belong to the same category of living beings. The difference lies in the fact that the animal in a human body can refine those tendencies and express them in a more subtle manner. This refinement is called culture. To eat is equally essential for all, but people, even when extremely hungry, do not rush up to the table like dogs and sit down to eat with total disregard for their surroundings. Unless their hunger is more powerful than the faculty of reasoning, they will wash their hands before eating. This is a part of culture.” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, Eledit 6, 2001, A Few Problems Solved Part 6, The Spirit Of Society

19.The greater the tendency of refinement in people, the more cultured they are. We must remember that refinement and hypocrisy are not the same. ” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, Eledit 6, 2001, A Few Problems Solved Part 6, The Spirit Of Society

20.Some people wear a mask of culture in public, but in private pursue personal or class interests. This hypocrisy has no place in the human society.” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, Eledit 6, 2001, A Few Problems Solved Part 6, The Spirit Of Society

21. The more cultured people become in a refined social environment, the greater their sense of duty for their children. For this reason children lose the capacity to do anything themselves.” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, Eledit 6, 2001, A Few Problems Solved Part 6, The Spirit Of Society

22.Culture is the same for all humanity though there are differences in cultural expressions due to time, space and person. These differences are not evidence of many different cultures as all languages of the world are fundamentally one and the same.” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, 1981, Calcutta, Eledit 6, 2001, A Few Problems Solved Part 9, The Language Issue

23. Human life is characterised by various kinds of expressions -people eat and drink, wear clothes, sing and dance, build houses, undergo medical treatment, and so on – which are collectively known as culture. Any one of these expressions is not culture; culture is the sum total of them all. Sadashiva wanted to systematise all those expressions of human life — dance, music, medicine, civilisation, in fact, every aspect of life. This was a big change, a revolutionary change. Nothing like it had ever taken place before.” – Shrii Shrii A’nandamurti, 17 January 1979, Bangaon, Eledit 6, 2001, A’nanda Vacana’mrtam Part 8, Sadvipra, Ta’raka Brahma, Sada’shiva And Shrii Krs’n'a

24. “Once one’s cultural life is controlled, one becomes a slave.” – Shrii Shrii A’nandamurti, 22 March 1982, Calcutta, Eledit 6, 2001, The Liberation Of Intellect, Discourse 8, Pseudo-Humanism

25. “The human race has only one culture. I am not prepared to accept that there are numerous cultures. But then, this much can be said: the dances, songs, pronun- ciations and festive celebrations of various groups of the human race have their local peculiarities. These local peculiarities, or differences in manners and customs, cannot be considered separate cultures. Such differences in the local manners and customs of human beings cannot be removed by the force of law or by dictatorial rule. If attempts are made to destroy local manners and customs, languages, and other social con- ventions in the name of national unity, human unity, or national sentiment, in all likelihood that will result in the escalation of mutual distrust and violence, which will lead collective life down the path of destruction.” – Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan, Eledit 6, 2001, Problems Of The Day, 23

26. The entire human society is of a cosmopolitan nature — nothing can be treated as being indigenous to this group or that. The world is fast moving toward cosmopolitanism, and none will be able to maintain their national characters. The big towns have already become cosmopolitan. Just as the mixture of the English, the Spanish, the French and so on gave rise to the culture of America, similarly a cosmopolitan blending is taking place. Cultural blending is going on throughout the world. No group of people or nation will be able to maintain its speciality — the political entities are trying hard to maintain these specialities, but they will not be able to. During a time of flood, ponds, streams, lakes, oceans all become one; similarly, culture will become one.” – Shrii Shrii A’nandamurti, 29 June 1970 morning, Ranchi, Eledit 6, 2001, A’nanda Vacana’mrtam Part 30, appendix

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